Sicherheit und Datenschutz in industriellen Produktionsanlagen und Kommunikationsnetzen
Dieses Teilprojekt widmet sich Sicherheitsfragen, die die gerade stattfindenden Umwälzungen in der industriellen Produktion betreffen. Mit dem IT-Sicherheitslabor für die Produktion des Fraunhofer IOSB steht eine auf IT-Sicherheit für Industrie 4.0 spezialisierte Forschungsumgebung bereit, die Experimente unter realistischen Bedingungen erlaubt.
Security and Data Protection for Future Production Systems
Security and Data Protection
This research field deals with
sustainable research questions for secure industrial production plants. In
addition to the legal aspects of data protection, these include future,
flexible security concepts for industry 4.0, secure cloud use, self-learning
anomaly detection in industrial production, and verifiable security in the
presence of active adversaries.
In Industry 4.0, intelligent autonomous
components will increasingly be used in the future, which are to interact and
communicate spontaneously with other, already integrated components. This
requires greater flexibility of the networks and the predefined security zones.
The concept of software defined networks
(SDN) offers the possibility to implement security guidelines for devices,
applications and services in a detailed and flexible manner.
Smart Fabric can thus benefit from SDN as
a building block for flexible and innovative security concepts. KASTEL develops
concepts that enable the use of software-defined network technologies to
implement modern security concepts in industry 4.0.
For example, for the dynamic
establishment of security zones or the flexible composition of
security-relevant network functions and their placement within the physical
In the context of Industry 4.0,
businesses are expected to use cloud computing technology for secure data
storage and data exchange between companies. Cloud computing becomes part of a
critical infrastructure for industry. The advantages of flexibility, robustness
and cost savings are offset by the loss of transparency.
KASTEL is developing a framework to
increase the transparency of cloud-based industry 4.0 solutions. This is
intended to enable a company as a cloud user to check, for example, whether a
solution actually complies with the requirements. For example, at which
geographical locations the data is stored and whether the required redundant
copies have also been created or deleted in accordance with the regulations.
The research group in this area are the TeleMatics.
Like all innovations, Industry 4.0 also
encounters a legal environment that has to be taken into account in its
development. The identified statutory and European legal requirements must be
examined with regard to the specified application scenarios, whereby questions
of data protection law in particular are of central importance. At European
level, the new basic European data protection regulation (DS-GVO) must be taken
into account, the standards of which will apply from May 2018. Their rules will
apply directly in each Member State and will replace national data protection
legislation in huge parts.
KASTEL is investigating how the
computerisation of manufacturing technology can be promoted within the
framework of Industry 4.0 in such a way, that data and secrecy-protecting
precautions can nevertheless be taken.
The participating research group is the Center for Applied Law
Security in plants that implement the
Industry 4.0 concept must be considered comprehensively - from the planning
level to the technical levels. The systems are operated in real time, which
poses an additional security risk. An adversary who gains access to the
technical infrastructure of a plant can cause great physical and financial
KASTEL develops a formal method for
conclusively demonstrating security.
Specifically, it is to be shown that an
adversary with the means at his disposal is incapable to damage the plant or to
operate it outside of the envisaged parameters. For this purpose, absolute
properties (e. g."the drill head never moves deeper than expected into the
drilling material") and relational properties (e. g."the speed of the
motor can be at most doubled by reconfiguration") are to be investigated.
Research is carried out together with the
for Theoretical Computer Science (ITI).
Modern production facilities are highly
networked. Embedded systems communicate with each other independently, planning
systems from the cloud calculate order steps and machine occupancy, plant
operators monitor and control from a distance, maintenance personnel access
resources worldwide and perform configuration changes. In the networked world,
the protection of production facilities no longer ends at the factory building
or the company grounds. The network connections allow adversaries to intrude
and manipulate the systems, malware infections can completely paralyze large
areas of the system, causing immense physical damage to the system and danger
to the population. Not only since news about Stuxnet, Duqu, Flame and Havex has
it been clear that production facilities are easy targets for cyber attacks.
Integrierte Methoden für Security-By-Design
Die bisher erarbeiteten methodischen Grundlagen werden in diesem Teilprojekt in einem Demonstrator zusammengeführt und integriert. Damit wird gezeigt, in welchem Maß Werkzeuge nach dem aktuellen Stand der Forschung die Integration von Sicherheitsanforderungen im Entwicklungsprozess von IT-Systemen unterstützen können.
Dieses Teilprojekt widmet sich methodischen Fragestellungen der IT-Sicherheit, die in mehreren Teilprojekten auftauchen. Hier werden die Methodikkompetenzen aus der ersten Förderphase von KASTEL weiter- und zusammengeführt.
Sicherheit in Smart Environments
Im Teilprojekt Sicherheit in Smart Environments werden Fragestellungen aufgegriffen, die in der zukünftigen vernetzten Alltagswelt angesiedelt sind. Hier werden unter anderem diejenigen Forschungsfragen aus der ersten Phase von KASTEL weiter- und zusammengeführt, für die Karlsruhe bereits bekannt ist: Privatsphärengerechte Lagedarstellung und Datenschutz bei Smart Homes und Smart Buildings.
Sichere und beherrschbare Energiesysteme
Hier werden Gefahren, die durch die Verbindung kritischer Infrastrukturen mit den öffentlichen Internet entstehen thematisiert. Das Energy Lab 2.0, eine in Europa einzigartige Infrastruktur zur Erforschung künftiger Energiesysteme, ist hierbei ein entscheidender Standortfaktor.
Security and Data Protection for the Future Living- and Working-Environment
Security and Data Protection for the Future Living- and Working-Environment
In this research field, KASTEL researchers are investigating the broad spectrum of questions arising from the integration of interconnected IT technologies in the environment and society. Services and products for Smart Environments should be both innovative and user-friendly, while at the same time meeting the user's desire for security and privacy and thus conforming to the legal framework. At KASTEL, concepts for a solution are explored which try to consider the different interests in this area of conflict.
The far-reaching integration of IT technology into the world of life and work enables a multitude of innovative applications and services. So-called "Smart Environments" form the basis for the automation of everyday processes and thus provide more comfort and efficient use of resources. But the acquisition and storage of data is also a critical issue here. The collected data can be used to infer activities, interests and preferences of individuals or business secrets of organisations. Secure procedures and communication protocols form the basis for the protection of privacy.
Smart Environments capture and process countless amounts of data in a variety of ways. The resulting virtual image of the real world thus inevitably contains areas of privacy that are worthy of protection. For the acceptance of such products and services, it is therefore essential to take protection interests into account and to create transparency for the user as well as the possibility of intervention. One of the proven principles in data protection is data economy, which is based on the fact that only those personal data which are absolutely necessary for the respective application are to be collected and processed. However, it may also be appropriate to initially collect more data in order to achieve a better protection of privacy.
Participating research groups are the Zentrum für angewandte Rechtswissenschaften (ZAR), the Institut für angewandte Informatik und formale Beschreibungsverfahren (AIFB) and the Fraunhofer IOSB.
In addition to the questions of feasibility and concrete implementation, Smart Environments also raise questions regarding legal standards and state regulation. The subject of the accompanying legal research in KASTEL is data protection law, among other things with regard to the European data protection basic regulation, but also work on questions of liability and evidence law. In doing so, concepts for the further development of the legal framework are also developed, taking into account technical possibilities and necessities.
The research group involved is the Center for Applied Law (ZAR).
Security in modern, complex systems can only be reliably guaranteed if the requirements for the system are consistent, from design to quality assurance of the actual implementation. Actual attacks from the past were very often caused by a lack of security strategies. However, they often also made use of errors that only arose during implementation - there, the originally envisaged security design was not consistently implemented.
That's why we at KASTEL are researching a system theory for the continuous adaptation to strategic, evolving adversaries, as well as tools and methods to make security implementable and verifiable. Experts from the most diverse disciplines of computer science work closely together with experts from the legal sciences to further develop well-known methods for the documentation and analysis of systems and programs and to make them usable for use in the security-critical environment.
A broad spectrum of questions will be investigated, which arise from the profound integration of networked IT technology in the environment and society. KASTEL is thus continuing the long tradition of data protection in Germany and thus contributing to securing a location advantage for the German economy.
Participating research groups are the Center for Applied Law (ZAR), the TeleMatics, the Institut für angewandte Informatik und formale Beschreibungsverfahren (AIFB) and the Fraunhofer IOSB.
Security and Privacy for Future Energy Grids
Security and Data Protection for Energy Grids
Our energy systems are becoming more and
more interconnected with stronger dynamics and fluctuations at the same time.
The widespread use of information technologies is intended to help balance the
generation and use of energy. In addition to the necessary benefits of
information technologies, this also entails risks, especially with regard to
the security of the energy network and the collected electricity consumption
data. KASTEL deals with questions and solutions concerning the security of the
energy network and sensitive consumer data. A decisive factor in this research
is the Energy Lab
2.0, which is centrally located at KIT and deals intensively with
the energy networks of the future.
Our energy systems will be fundamentally
restructured in the future. Solar and wind energy is generated decentrally and in a highly fluctuating
manner. Only the intensive use of information technology can balance production
This widespread use of IT systems creates
new threats to the economy and society at the same time: the power consumption
data collected for network control allow conclusions to be drawn about private
life habits and production processes in industry. At the same time, additional
IT systems increase the attack area; manipulation can lead to disruptions,
damage and long-term, large-scale power outages. This makes IT security an
essential prerequisite for a successful Energiewende (Energy Transition).
In order to ensure the security of such
systems, the electricity grid must be considered in its entirety so that the
concepts and methods of information technology and electrical engineering can
be appropriately integrated. In particular, data protection and the legal
framework of regulation require a close involvement of the jurisprudence.
KASTEL develops interdisciplinary solutions for the security and privacy of the
power grids of the future.
A particular challenge is to reconcile
the seemingly contradictory requirements for functionality, real-time
capability, privacy protection and robustness against attacks and disruptions.
Distributed energy systems should not only have a secure IT infrastructure, but
also be robust as a whole, since attacks cannot be completely avoided.
The research group involved is the Institut für angewandte Informatik (IAI).
Provable Security for Complex IT Systems
Model-based Plausibility Check
The classical error- and attack-detection
in energy networks analyzes the information technology system for untrustworthy
communication flows. In doing so, only local manipulations of the energy
network are detected. This leads to an increase in the risk of inter-island
attacks and inter-island dependency in decentralised energy networks.
The modelling of the island networks
contains not only the information technology system, but also the energy,
material and heat flows (complete network). The plausibility check based on the
models can now reveal discrepancies between the exchanged data and the
resulting changes in the behaviour of the energy network and, depending on the
hazard assessment, report or sound the alarm.
Absolute security can only be achieved
for a system, if the domain-specific security properties are developed at a
level, where it is possible to ensure, that the specified and verified security
properties are compatible with each other.
The systems are not completely
redeveloped, but are based on existing systems and functionalities. Therefore,
the integration of different development phases poses a special challenge. It
is also necessary to consider the security of a system over its entire
lifecycle. This requires sound risk- and security-management based on a
fundamental system theory, consisting of analyses of hazards of protected
goods, adversarial models and suitable protection processes, -concepts and
The research groups involved are the Institute
for Theoretical Computer Science (ITI) and the Institute
for Program Structures and Data Organization (IPD).
Absolute security is difficult to prove,
since only those cases can be covered, that one can imagine. In order to make
the concept of security comprehensible, security models are developed which
formally describe the possibilities of an adversary. Furthermore, it defines
exactly what it means to break a given procedure. A given cryptographic method
is sufficiently secure for a security model if the adversary can only break it
with a negligible probability.
At KASTEL, research is conducted into the
aspects of composable security. This involves examining the extent to which the
assembly of individual, proven components leads to a safe overall system.
Furthermore, we are working on aggregate signature procedures. These are
procedures to convert the signatures and several messages into a single
signature, thus saving bandwidth during transport.
The research group involved is the Institute
for Theoretical Computer Science (ITI).
At KASTEL, a fundamental system theory is
being researched, which enables a comprehensive and integrated security
assessment from hazard analysis to the creation of requirements and
verification of the integrated mechanisms at implementation level. A special
focus of the legal perspective is on the integration of preliminary legal
considerations in the event of value conflicts, for example with regard to the
valuation of protected goods. This contributes to ensuring legal conformity in
weighing processes, which was previously the sole domain of computer science. A
wide variety of research disciplines work together to find interdisciplinary
Within the context of KASTEL, a
model-driven specification procedure for the collection and documentation of
security requirements for systems is being developed.
It is investigated how these security
requirements from the model level can be distributed to subsystems in a
semantically correct way and thus be mapped to concrete implementations. In
this way, their security can be verified directly in the implementation. Based
on this, KASTEL develops tools and methods for the analysis, verification and
integration of source and byte code in order to unite the strengths of
different approaches as profitably as possible. Three tools are combined here:
Palladio is an architectural tool that allows the creation of software with
certain quality characteristics. JOANA
examines Java programs for sequential and probabilistic leaks in information
flows. Using key, it is possible to formally verify that a Java program fulfils